# Stopping (Braking) Distance, Acceleration/Deceleration, Speed and Time

This calculator computes the following (uniform acceleration or deceleration is assumed):

• The first calculator is able to calculate the following, whereby three of the six variables must be known:
• Stopping (Braking) distance or acceleration distance
• Overall stopping distance
• Acceleration or deceleration
• Time
• Starting velocity
• Final velocity
• The second calculator computes the absolute braking that is possible, depending on road condition (coefficient of friction) and centre of gravity (overturn of a vehicle).

## Calculator

With the default settings the minimum braking distance, the overall stopping distance and the time that is needed therefore, are calculated for the following conditions: The starting velocity of the vehicle is 100 km/h, the roadway has to be dry, clean, flat, straight and sealed. Reaction time is 1 s.

• With the default values you can carry out a calculation by simply pressing the button "Calculate" or the enter key!
• You can do the calculation several times, too. Just change the values in the white fields!

### Stopping (Braking) Distance Calculator

Enter a reaction time:   s

There has to be one number in three out of five lines - the empty fields will be calculated!

 stopping distance m overall stopping distance m time s acceleration/deceleration m/s² starting velocity km/h final velocity km/h

### Calculation of the maximum possible deceleration

Please enter a number in the top four fields!
Assumption: all wheels are braked.

 gradient (negative values, too) % length l (centre of gravity) m coefficient of friction hight h (centre of gravity) m Absolute braking (stiction) m/s² Absolute braking (overturn) m/s²

### Manual

• As comma you have to use a point.
• The calculation is only valid for uniform acceleration or constant deceleration.
• There is less acceleration or deceleration possible in curves.
• It is assumed that all the wheels are braked or driven.
• If you want to enter deceleration in the corresponding field you have to use a negative number.
• For braking, of course, you must choose a higher initial velocity than the final speed.
• The default values can be changed as desired.
• You have to enter one number in three out of five lines, i.e.: in the first line should always be one number only!
• When accelerating from 0 km/h, the initial velocity should be set to zero.
• Results are displayed on a green background.
• Accuracy can not be guaranteed - for corrections or additions please use my contact form!

## Background Knowledge and Formulas

### General Information

Overall stopping distance is the sum of braking distance and thinking distance. The total time for braking is made up of reaction time and braking time.

In the following diagram you can find the distances h and l which are required for the calculation of the overturn of a vehicle.

 h: Distance centre of gravity of the vehicle - road surface l: Distance centre of gravity of the vehicle - front wheel (= tipping point) β: Slope angle of the road Schwerpunkt: centre of gravity Fahrtrichtung: direction of travel

### Reference Values for Acceleration or Deceleration

 Example Acceleration/Deceleration in m/s² car - mean acceleration 0 - 100 km/h 3 car - average deceleration at full braking on a dry, clean, flat and sealed road -7.8 bis -11.8 car - average deceleration at full braking on a wet, flat and sealed road -3.9 bis -5.9 bicycle - deceleration necessary by law in Austria -4 * bicycle - absolute braking for an average driver -5.5 Tram Vienna (ULF) - starting acceleration 1.3 Tram Vienna (ULF) - service braking -1.8 Rapid braking of trams, with magnetic track brake -3 ÖBB 4020 (Wiener Schnellbahn) - starting acceleration 0.7 Siemens Desiro ML, ÖBB 5022 - starting acceleration 1.1 acceleration of gravity 9.81

Source: Wikipedia, manufacturer sites

* Source: Bundeskanzleramt - RIS

### Uniform Acceleration - with Starting Velocity

The following formulas are valid for uniform acceleration only:

 v: final velocity in m/s v0: starting velocity in m/s a: acceleration in m/s² s: way in m t: time in s

### Uniform Acceleration - without Starting Velocity

The following formulas are valid for uniform acceleration only: